Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica. Volum 20 (2022) Pàgines: 47-52

First record of Syrphophilus bizonarius (Gravenhorst, 1829) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Diplazontinae) from Algeria

Ait Amar, S., Karima, B.-K., Medjdoub-Bensaad, F., AlHussain Kareem, A. A.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.32800/amz.2022.20.0047

Paraules clau

Ichneumonidae, Diplazontinae, Syrphophilus bizonarius, Episyrphus balteatus, Algèria, Tizi–Ouzou

Cita

Ait Amar, S., Karima, B.-K., Medjdoub-Bensaad, F., AlHussain Kareem, A. A., 2022. First record of Syrphophilus bizonarius (Gravenhorst, 1829) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Diplazontinae) from Algeria. Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica, 20: 47-52, DOI: https://doi.org/10.32800/amz.2022.20.0047

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Data de recepció:

22/08/2022

Data d'acceptació:

06/10/2022

Data de publicació:

25/10/2022

AMZ-2232

Abstract

First record of Syrphophilus bizonarius (Gravenhorst, 1829) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Diplazontinae) from Algeria

The subfamily Diplazontinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) has been little studied in Algeria. Following our study in the region of Tizi–Ouzou from March to May 2020, we report the presence of the species Syrphophilus bizonarius (Gravenhorst, 1829) for the first time in this country, starting from a single male individual that emerged from a hoverfly pupa of Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer, 1776) (Diptera, Syrphidae, Syrphinae).

Key words: Ichneumonidae, Diplazontinae, Syrphophilus bizonarius, Episyrphus balteatus, Algeria, Tizi–Ouzou

Resumen

Primer registro de Syrphophilus bizonarius (Gravenhorst, 1829) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae,
Diplazontinae) en Argelia

La subfamilia Diplazontinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) ha sido muy poco estudiada en Argelia. El estudio realizado en la región de Tizi–Ouzou entre los meses de marzo y mayo de 2020 permitió registrar por primera vez la presencia de la especie Syrphophilus bizonarius (Gravenhorst, 1829) en la misma a partir de un ejemplar macho surgido de una pupa del sírfido Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer, 1776) (Diptera, Syrphidae, Syrphinae).

Palabras clave: Ichneumonidae, Diplazontinae, Syrphophilus bizonarius, Episyrphus balteatus, Argelia, Tizi–Ouzou

Resum

Primer registre de Syrphophilus bizonarius (Gravenhorst, 1829) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae,
Diplazontinae) a Algèria

La subfamília Diplazontinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) ha estat molt poc estudiada a Algèria. L’estudi portat a terme a la regió de Tizi–Ouzou entre els mesos de març i maig de 2020 va permetre registrar–hi per primera vegada la presència de l’espècie Syrphophilus bizonarius (Gravenhorst, 1829) a partir d’un exemplar mascle sorgit d’una pupa del sírfid Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer, 1776) (Diptera, Syrphidae, Syrphinae).

Paraules clau: Ichneumonidae, Diplazontinae, Syrphophilus bizonarius, Episyrphus balteatus, Algèria, Tizi–Ouzou

Introduction

Diplazontinae is a subfamily of Ichneumonidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera). Morphologically well–defined and small, it is quite easily recognizable, especially by its enlarged and upper mandibles that are bilobed at the tip, the short or absent sternum of the mesopleura, and the short and basally enlarged first tergite. In females, the ovipositor is short, extending little or no further than the tip of the abdomen (Goulet and Huber, 1993). With the exception of the species of the genus Bioblapsis (Förster, 1869) (Klopfstein, 2014), members of this subfamily are koinobiont endoparasitoids specialized in parasitizing larvae of aphidophagous hoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae, Syrphinae) (Quicke, 2015). However, they can also be used as natural enemies against several pests, and can parasitize the larvae of the sorghum shoot fly Atherigona soccata (Bleton and Fieuzet, 1943). Moreover, in the framework of biological control, Syrphophilus bizonarius (Gravenhorst, 1829) has been observed on apples from Italy to Israel. To date, 340 species belonging to the subfamily Diplazontinae have been described worldwide. Most of these have been described from the holarctic region, with the boreal and alpine areas being particularly rich in species (Manukyan, 1995; Klopfstein, 2007). In Algeria, however, very little information is available about this group, and Diplazon laetatorius (Fabricius, 1781) is the only species recorded in the country to date (Aroun, 2015).

Material and methods

This study was based on the examination of material collected to breed aphidophagous hoverflies from March to May 2020. The sampling site was Draâ Ben Khedda city (36º 72' 64.43'' 3º 96' 39.31''), located in the Tizi–Ouzou region (North Algeria) (fig. 1). The climate in Tizi–Ouzou is classified as Csa (a warm temperate climate with dry, hot summers) (Köppen et al., 2011). The material was identified according to the works of Klopfstein (2014) and Broad and Shaw (2018).

Fig. 1. A, study area; B, map of Algeria; C, map of northern Algeria showing the Tizi–Ouzou region.
Fig. 1. A, área de estudio; B, mapa de Argelia; C, mapa del norte de Argelia en el que se muestra la región de Tizi–Ouzou.

Results

The parasitoid species S. bizonarius is reported here for the first time in Algeria. A single male emerged from a pupa of Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer, 1776). The hoverfly larva was feeding on the black bean aphid Aphis fabae (Scopoli, 1763).

Description

According to Klopfstein (2014), the fore wing length measures between 3.5 and 4.5 mm. The antennae of both sexes have 17–21 flagellomeres. The mesoscutum is smooth and shiny between the faint perforations. The mesopleuron is smooth and shiny between weak perforations spaced more apart than their diameter. The sternaulus is strongly impressed. The propodeum has a complete set of strong carinae surrounding basal, lateral, and petiolaris areas, all of which show a rough sculpture.

Colouration of males

Antenna brown to orange, paler in the lower portion (fig. 2). Head and mesosoma black, face with yellow inner orbits, yellow on hind corner of pronotum, clypeus, mouthparts, tegula, sometimes subtegular ridge, small to large shoulder mark, and upper mesepimeron; scutellum usually yellow, at least with yellow apex. Legs orange, hind tarsus dark. Metasoma orange on tergites 2 to 3 or 4, but sometimes dark and with orange or yellow apical bands only on tergites 2 to 3 (Klopfstein, 2014).

Fig. 2. Male of Syrphophylus bizonarius (G×2): A, frontal view of head; B, dorsal view of mesosoma and propodeum; C, right wings; D, base of metasoma; E, dorsal view of habitus; F, antennae.
Fig. 2. Macho de Syrphophylus bizonarius (G×2): A, vista frontal de la cabeza; B, vista dorsal del mesosoma y el propodeo; C, alas derechas; D, base del metasoma; E, vista dorsal del biotipo; F, antenas.

Discussion

According to Fitton and Rotheray (1982), Scaramozzino (1995), and Klopfstein (2014), Syrphophilus (Dasch, 1964) is a genus with only five species: S. bizonarius, S. tricinctorius (Thunberg, 1824), S. scabriculus (Holmgren, 1858), S. asperatus (Dasch, 1964), and S. stibarus (Momoi, 1973). Only the species S. bizonarius was found in this study, emerging from a pupa of E. balteatus. This species is known to parasitize pupae of hoverfly species such as Eupeodes corollae (Fabricius, 1794), E. balteatus, Eupeodes luniger (Meigen, 1822), Sphaerophoria scripta (Linnaeus, 1758) and Syrphus vitripennis (Meigen, 1822) (Dušek et al., 1979). Tomanovic et al. (2008), affirm that this wasp can also attack Syrphus ribesii (Linnaeus, 1758). Mifsud (2012) reported it for the first time in Malta on a pupa of E. balteatus.

Syrphophlus bizonarius is widely distributed in Holarctic and Oriental regions (Dasch, 1964). It occurs in North America, Asia, Europe, and Africa (Steffen et al., 2015). Several censuses have been conducted in many European countries (Van Achterberg and Zwakhals, 2004). In Asia, it has been recorded in India, Mongolia, Azerbaijan and China (Yu et al., 2012). In 2014, this species was reported for the first time in Iran by Hasanshahi et al. (2014). In Africa, was recorded from Morocco by Greathead and Greathead (1992). In 2010, it was reported for the first time from Egypt (Gadallah et al., 2010). In this paper we report the presence of the syrphid parasitoid S. bizonarius for the first time in Algeria. This ichneumonid wasp may contribute to the biological control of common pests in Algeria.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Mr William Penigot from France for confirming the identity of the wasp.

References

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